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Manufacturing flaws in pressure vessels affect safety

The length of design and use of pressure vessels is a complex issue, involving a series of design factors such as material selection, basic corrosion data, and structural design. Whether it can be accurately predicted reflects the experience and level of the designer. After the air storage tank is connected to the air compressor, the buffer tank can not only effectively store the compressed air generated by the air compressor, but also reduce the pressure pulsation caused by the discontinuous discharge of the compressor. gas stability. The air storage tank can effectively reduce the high temperature compressed gas during the operation of the air compressor, which can prolong the service life of the filter and the load of the desiccant. The manufacture of the air storage tank is used to store gas. In the process of use, it can be effectively divided into low-pressure vessels, medium-pressure vessels, high-pressure vessels, and ultra-high-pressure vessels according to the different pressures of the pressure vessels. It can be divided into stainless steel, alloy materials and carbon steel. Forgings for pressure vessels describe that pressure vessels can be used in metallurgy, petroleum, chemical and other industries, and are effectively divided into low pressure, medium pressure and high pressure according to their gas storage pressure. Another defect in the manufacturing process of pressure vessels is the non-connection of the shell geometry, such as unevenness, deformation of seam corners, etc. The stress of various revolving shells under the action of internal pressure is related to its radius of curvature. When two kinds of shells with different curvature radii are connected together, due to the different stress, the resulting deformation is also different. But they constrain each other, thereby causing shear force and bending moment at the junction, resulting in additional bending stress on the shell, resulting in excessive local stress. The magnitude of the additional stress caused by the geometric discontinuity depends on the transition at the discontinuity. Sudden changes in shape and size can cause high additional stress, while if the change is very gentle, the additional stress can be reduced to very small.

    Forgings for Pressure Vessels describes the discontinuous defects of various geometric shapes produced in the processing, forming and assembly of pressure vessels. The defect of the non-circular section also changes the curvature radius of the shell in the same section, but the change is slow and has little effect on the stress of the inner pressure shell, but the shell under external pressure (such as the inner cylinder of a jacketed container), the critical pressure will be reduced due to the non-circular section, and even the shell will lose its stability and be crushed. The effect of a local depression (or bulge) on the surface is determined by the diameter and depth (or height) of the depression (or bulge). Generally speaking, the dents with large diameter and small depth, the change of geometry is relatively gentle, and the impact is also small. The unevenness of the head produced in the manufacturing process of the container is generally gentle. The shell of the pressure vessel, such as the head and cylinder, is often subjected to cold working such as stamping, rolling, etc. and after welding, and there is often a part of the residual stress on the shell. A portion of the shell wall material is under stress. This internal stress can sometimes be very large, especially in welding, and in individual cases can even reach or approach the yield limit of the material. The internal stress of welding is generated because when the metal is welded, the molten metal of the weld is filled in the seam of the weldment in a molten state. When the weld metal and the surrounding base metal are cooled, these metals are shrinkage, but it is constrained by the rigid weldment, so tensile stress is generated near the weld, which is the welding internal stress. The magnitude of the welding internal stress depends on the degree of restraint of the weldment on the shrinkage and deformation of the weld. The thicker the weldment, the greater the rigidity and the greater the residual internal stress after welding.

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